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Drilling and completion of wells go down the tubes, and other mechanical equipment cleanout operations. Including power equipment and drill, drill, core pipe, drill racks. Generally divided rotary turn, impact drills and composite turnaround three categories.
Rotary drilling rig rotary motion rely broken rock from the hole. There are five kinds. ① pot cone. Using its pot cone drill rotary cutting soil. Depending on the size of each drill cone and pot cauldron called cones, or powered by a human. Soil crumbs cut fell pot, raised to the ground unloading. Its simple structure, low efficacy, suitable for general soil or sand and gravel soil. Drilling depth pot cone 80 to 100 meters, the cauldron cone 30 to 40 meters. ② circulation rotary drilling rig mud wash well. From the tower, hoist, wheel, drilling, mud, faucets and so on motor. When the job, power machine driven by the gear wheel, driven by the active drill bit rotates broken rock. There are positive and negative two cycle way. When the positive cycle rig, downhole drill cuttings through the outer annular channel is brought out wellhead, after the settler, mud back into the mud pit for recycling. Drilling depth of up to several hundred meters or even kilometers. When the reverse circulation rig, mud flows into the bottom of the well after the settler from the wellhead itself, carrying debris from the gravel slurry pump suction outlet through a drill wells up through the drill pipe cavity, sink back into settling ponds. Formed within the drill rig rises high flow rates, a strong ability to discharge cuttings and pebbles, drilling speed, suitable for the soil, sand and gravel drill diameter smaller than the inner diameter of the loose formation. Drilling depth is generally less than 150 m. ③ pressure gas flushing rotary rig. On the turntable rotary drilling rig mud pump used instead of air compressors, compressed air instead of mud wash well. Usually reverse circulation mode, also known as gas lift reverse circulation. Suitable for larger depth and water scarcity in arid regions and boreal permafrost. ④ hydraulic power head rig. By reducer driven by a hydraulic motor, and move up and down along the tower instead of the power head and faucet rotary dial on the rig, driven rotary cutting rock drill and drill. Can drill large diameter wells. ⑤ DTH vibration rotary rig. Vibration and rotational movement of a combination of drilling rock formations. Drill by drill, vibrator, dynamic damper and a guide tube and other components. Exciting force generated by a vibrator for the entire drill conical pendulum movement with broken rock. Reverse circulation mode using compressed air flushing, make cuttings discharged outside the well through the drill pipe and the lumen. Drilling depth of up to 150 meters.
Impact drill rigs by vertical reciprocating motion, so that the impact of downhole drill bit to break the rock. Its structure is simple, there is no circulation flushing system, debris cleanup and rig not simultaneously, thus lower efficacy. Drilling depth is generally less than 250 meters, sometimes up to 500 to 600 meters. There are two kinds. ① GRABBING cone. The use of its own weight impact drill formations. Lower end of the drill is several sheets together can catch the cusp-shaped flap, when the downward movement of the drill under the weight of its own, grab flap open, cut into the rock, and then drill through the hoist rope lifting, grasping flap closure process will catch debris into the cone, put wellhead discharged cuttings. Drilling depth is generally 40 to 50 meters, the deepest of 100 to 150 meters. ② rope impact rig. Mounted on the top of the mast and lifting pulleys, rope, impact mechanism, drill, electric motors and other components. When the job, gear drive motor through the impact mechanism to drive up and down the rope so that the drill is reciprocated by the weight of the drill itself is cut and broken rock at the downward movement, upward movement by pulling the rope. Drill stroke of 0.5 to 1 m, the impact frequency of 30 to 60 beats / min. Cleared debris from the ground Chousha barrel, drilling and removal of debris at the same time.
There are two kinds of composite drill: one is the impact of institutions on the basis of additional rotary turntable rig on to the main rotary drilling, when faced with the impact of the gravel layer dual wells drilling rig, the various strata adaptability. Another is the impact of combined action with rotary rigs drilling wells, wind DTH rig. DTH drill by liner and piston and other components. Provided by high-pressure air pushes the piston air compressor reciprocating motion, impact drill bit to enhance the ability of rock drilling. At the same time, the drill string 35 to 60 rev / min low speed rotary movement. By the piston, the exhaust air into the lower cavity drill cuttings out of the hole bottom and the wellhead. Pneumatic DTH drilling rig can be used for deep hard rock drilling, drilling speed is high, the more wells drilled straight.